When it comes to investing, knowing what you need to know is more important than just knowing things.
說到投資,知道自己需要什么比了解投資產品更重要。

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You Don't Need to Have an Opinion on Every Stock or Investment
你不需要懂每一只股票或投資產品

One of the things that successful investors tend to have in common is that they do not have an opinion on every stock in the Universe.
成功的投資者共有的一個特點就是他們并不懂全球所有股票。

The major brokerage firms, asset management groups, and commercial banks seem to feel like it is necessary to attach a rating to everything security that is traded.
大型經紀公司、資產管理集團和商業銀行好像都感覺有必要對所有安全交易進行評級。

Some popular financial talk show hosts take pride in espousing their view on virtually every business thats traded.
有些著名的財經訪談節目主持人對能評價所有的交易業務引以為傲。

While this can be useful when looking at corporate bonds and discovering whether they trade more toward the AAA rating or junk bond side of the spectrum, in a lot of cases, this obsession with metrics is somewhat nonsensical.
雖然這在觀察企業債券并弄清是把錢投在了AAA級投資產品還是投在了垃圾債券時很有用,但在很多情況下,對指標的迷信有點荒謬。

Investing is not an exact science. Paraphrasing two of the industries priests, you don't need to know a man's exact weight to know that he is fat, nor do you need to know a basketball player's exact height to know he is very tall.
投資并非精密科學。借用兩位行業專家的話,你不需要知道一個人的具體體重就能知道他很胖,你也不需要知道一個籃球球員的具體身高就能知道他很高。

If you focus on only acting in those few instances where you have a clear winner and watch for opportunities that come along every once in a while, sometimes years apart, you are likely to do better than the Wall Street analysts that stay up nights trying to decide if Union Pacific is worth $50 or $52.
如果你只關注幾種投資產品,確定自己穩賺,并找準偶爾出現的機會,有時是多年不遇的時機,你就能比華爾街分析師做得還要好,他們可能還要熬幾宿來確定美國聯合太平洋鐵路公司的股票值$50還是$52

Instead, you wait till the stock is trading at $28 then pounce. When you find a truly excellent business, you are often best served through near total passivity and holding until death.
你就可以等著直到該股票以$28交易時就下手,你發現真正好的商機時,通常是在幾乎完全被動的情況下一輩子持有這只股票就能大賺一筆。

This approach has minted a lot of secret millionaires, including janitors earning near minimum wage and sitting atop $8,000,000 fortunes.
這個方法造就了大批神秘百萬富翁,包括門衛都能賺著最低工資,卻坐擁8百萬美元的資產。

Why do investors find it so hard to admit that they don't have a clear-cut opinion about a specific business at the current market price? Often, pride and, to some degree mental discomfort over the unknown, is the culprit.
為什么投資者不愿意承認他們對于目前市場價格的某個特定投資產品并不十分清楚呢?通常是自尊心以及在某種程度上對未知的心理不適在作祟。

For more information on how to overcome these forces, read Rationality: The Investors Secret Weapon.
想要獲取更多關于如何克服這些阻力的信息,請閱讀《Rationality: The Investors Secret Weapon》。

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Know Every Company (Or at Least, a Whole Lot of Them!)
了解每家公司(或至少大多數公司!)

Even if you don't have an opinion on the specific attractiveness of most stocks at any given moment, you should know as many businesses as you can across as many sectors and industries as you can.?
即使在特定時期你不懂大多數股票的特定優勢,你也應該盡可能多了解多個行業和產業的公司。

This means being familiar with things like return on equity and return on assets.?
這意味著你能熟悉股本回報率和資產回報率這樣的東西。

It means understanding why two businesses that appear similar on the surface can have very different underlying economic engines; what separates a good business from a great business.
也能理解為什么兩個產品表面上看起來差不多,卻有著截然不同的潛在經濟引擎,這也是好的產品和優秀產品的區別所在。

When asked what advice he would give a young investor trying to enter the business today, Warren Buffett said that he would systematically get to know as many businesses as he could because that bank of knowledge would serve as a tremendous asset and competitive advantage.
沃倫?巴菲特在被問及會給現在想進入商界的年輕投資者什么建議時,曾說過他會系統地盡可能多了解一些投資產品,因為這一知識庫將成為巨大資產和競爭優勢。

For example, when something happened that you thought would increase the profits of copper companies, if you knew the industry ahead of time, including the relative position of the different firms, you'd be able to act much more quickly and with a much more complete understanding of the full picture, than if you had to become familiar with not only the industry but all of the players within it over a compressed period of time.?
比如有你覺得會提高銅礦企業利潤的事情發生時,如果你提前了解了這一產業,包括不同企業的相對地位,就比你在有限時間內要熟悉這一產業以及所有產業內的公司能更快采取行動,思慮得也更周全。

(Realize that there are no shortcuts for this step if your aim is mastery. When the host of the television show responded to Buffett, "But there are 24,000 publicly traded companies!" Warren responded, "Start with the As").
(你要明白,想要掌控全局就沒有捷徑可走。當電視節目主持人反問巴菲特:“但上市公司有24,000家呢!”,巴菲特回答說:“從行業領先的開始了解吧。”)

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(翻譯:菲菲)